**The Turing Test approach**

Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence"

The Turing Test

What capabilities would a computer need to have to pass the Turing Test?

- Natural language processing

- Knowledge representation

- Automated reasoning

- Machine learning

Turing predicted that by the year 2000, machines would be able to fool 30% of human judges for five minutes.

**The cognitive modeling approach**

Goal: Develop precise theories of human thinking

Cognitive Architecture

- Software Architecture for modeling human performance

- Describe task, required knowledge , major sub-goals

- Architecture follows human-like reasoning

- Makes testable predictions: Time delays during problem solving, kinds of mistakes, eye movements, verbal protocols, learning rates, strategy shifts over time, etc.

**Problems:**

- It may be impossible to identify the detailed structure of human problem solving using only externally-available data.

The laws of thought approach

- Idealized or "right" way of thinking

- Logic: patterns of argument that always yield correct conclusions when supplied with correct premises

- "Tom is a man; all men are mortal; therefore Tom is mortal."

- Beginning with Aristotle, philosophers and mathematicians have attempted to formalize the rules of logical thought

Logicist approach to AI: describe problem in formal logical notation and apply general deduction procedures to solve it

**Problems with the logicist approach**

- Computational complexity of finding the solution

- Describing real-world problems and knowledge in logical notation

- Dealing with uncertainty

- A lot of intelligent or "rational" behavior has nothing to do with logic

**Thinking Rationally:**

**The Logical Approach**

Ensure that all actions performed by computer are justifiable ("rational")

Facts and Rules in Formal Logic → Theorem Prover

Rational = Conclusions are provable from inputs and prior knowledge

**Problems:**

Representation of informal knowledge is difficulty

Hard to define "provable" reasoning

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