Friday, 25 May 2018

Acting humanly and Thinking rationally

The Turing Test approach

Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence"
The Turing Test

What capabilities would a computer need to have to pass the Turing Test?
 - Natural language processing
 - Knowledge representation
 - Automated reasoning
 - Machine learning

Turing predicted that by the year 2000, machines would be able to fool 30% of human judges for five minutes.

The cognitive modeling approach

Goal: Develop precise theories of human thinking
Cognitive Architecture
- Software Architecture for modeling human performance
- Describe task, required knowledge , major sub-goals
- Architecture follows human-like reasoning
- Makes testable predictions: Time delays during problem solving, kinds of mistakes, eye movements, verbal protocols, learning rates, strategy shifts over time, etc.

Problems:
- It may be impossible to identify the detailed structure of human problem solving using only externally-available data.

The laws of thought approach
 - Idealized or "right" way of thinking
- Logic: patterns of argument that always yield correct conclusions when supplied with correct premises
   - "Tom is a man; all men are mortal; therefore Tom is mortal."
 - Beginning with Aristotle, philosophers and mathematicians have attempted to formalize the rules of logical thought
Logicist approach to AI: describe problem in formal logical notation and apply general deduction procedures to solve it

Problems with the logicist approach
  - Computational complexity of finding the solution
  - Describing real-world problems and knowledge in logical notation 
  - Dealing with uncertainty
  - A lot of intelligent or "rational" behavior has nothing to do with logic

Thinking Rationally:
The Logical Approach
  
Ensure that all actions performed by computer are justifiable ("rational")
    Facts and Rules in Formal Logic  →    Theorem Prover
Rational = Conclusions are provable from inputs and prior knowledge
Problems:
 Representation of informal knowledge is difficulty
 Hard to define "provable" reasoning

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