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Hypothesis Space :-

The space of all hypothesis that can, in principle, be output by a learning algorithm.

We can think about a supervised learning machine as a device that explores a "hypothesis space".
- Each setting of the parameters in the machine is a different hypothesis about the function that maps input vectors to output vectors.

Representation :-

Terminology

Example (x,y) : Instance x with label y=f(x)
Training Data s : Collection of examples observed by learning algorithm.
Instance Space x : Set of all possible objects describable by features.
Concept c : Subset of objects from X (c is unknown).
Target Function f : Maps each instance x ε X to target label y ε Y

Classifier

Hypothesis h : Function that approximates f.
Hypothesis Space H : Set of functions we allow for approximating f.
The set of hypotheses that can be produced, can be restricted further by specifying a language bias.
Input : Training set S ⊆ X
Output : A hypothesis h ⊆ H

Inductive Bias

Need to make assumptions
- Experience alone doesn't allow us to make conclusion about unseen data instances
Two types of bias :
- Restriction : Limit the hypothesis space
- Preference : Impose ordering on hypothesis space

Inductive learning

Inductive Learning : Inducing a general function from training examples
- Construct hypothesis h to agree with c on the training example.
- A hypothesis is consistent if it agrees with all training examples.
- A hypothesis said to generalize well if it correctly predicts the value of y for novel example.

Inductive Learning is an /// Posed Problem :
Unless we see all possible examples the data is not sufficient for an inductive learning  algorithm to find a unique solution.

Inductive Learning Hypothesis

Any hypothesis h found to approximate the target function c well over a sufficiently large set of training examples D will also approximate the target function well over other unobserved examples.

Learning as Refining the Hypothesis Space

Concept learning is a task of searching an hypotheses space of possible representations looking for the representation(s) that best fits the data, given the bias.

The tendency to prefer one hypothesis over another is called bias.
Given a representation, data, and a bias, the problem of learning can be reduced to one of search.

Occam's Razor

A classical example of Inductive Bias
the simplest consistent hypothesis about the target function is actually the best

Some more Types of Inductive Bias

Minimum description length : When forming a hypothesis, attempt to minimize the length of the description of the hypothesis.

Minimum margin : When drawing a boundary between two classes, attempt to maximize the width of the boundary (SVM)

Important issues in Machine Learning

What are good hypothesis spaces ?
Algorithms that work with the hypothesis spaces
How to optimize accuracy over future data points (overfitting)
How can we have confidence in the result ? (How much training data - statistical qs)
Are some learning problems computationally intractable ?

Generalization

Components of generalization error
- Bias : how much the average model over all training sets differ from the true model ?
Error due to inaccurate assumptions/simplifications made by the model
- Variance : how much models estimated from different training sets differ from each other

Underfitting and Overfitting

Underfitting : model is too "simple" to represent all the relevant class characteristics
- High bias and low variance
- High training error and high test error
Overfitting : model is too "complex" and fits irrelevant characteristics (noise) in the data
- Low bias and high variance
- Low training error and high test error

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