Saturday, 22 September 2018

Expert System in Artificial Intelligence

Computer software that:
  • Emulates human expert
  • Deals with small, well defined domains of expertise
  • Is able to solve real-world problems
  • Is able to ac as a cost-effective consultant
  • Can explains reasoning behind any solutions it finds
  • Should be able to learn from experience.
Expert System
  • An expert system is a system that utilizes human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problem that ordinarily require human expertise. (Turban)
  • A computer program that emulates the behaviour of human experts who are solving real-world problem associated with a particular domain of knowledge. (Pigford & Braur)
What is an Expert?
  • Solve simple problem easily.
  • ask appropriate question (based on external stimuli-sight, sound etc.
  • reformulate questions to obtain answers.
  • explain why they asked the question.
  • explain why conclusion reached.
  • judge the reliability of their own conclusions.
  • talk easily with other experts in their field.
  • learn from experience.
  • reason on many levels and use a variety of tools such as heuristics, mathematical models and detailed simulations.
  • transfer knowledge from one domain to another.
  • use their knowledge efficiently. 
Expert System
  • Expert System manipulate knowledge while conventional programs manipulate data.
  • An expert system is often defined by its structure.
  • Provide Direct Application of Expertise
  • Expert System Do Not Experts, But They
          - Make their Knowledge and Experience More Widely Available
          - Permit Nonexperts to Work Better


Transferring Expertise

Objective of an expert system
  • To transfer expertise from an expert to a computer system and
  • Then on to other humans (nonexperts)
Activities
  • Knowledge acquisition
  • Knowledge representation
  • Knowledge inferencing
  • Knowledge transfer to the user
Knowledge is stored in a knowledge base

The main players in the development team
  1. There are five members of the expert system development team: the domain expert, the knowledge engineer, the programmer, the project manager and the end-user.
  2. The success of their expert system entirely depends on how well the members work together.

The domain expert
  • The domain expert is a knowledge and skilled person capable of solving problems in a specific area or domain.
  • The person has the greatest expertise in a given domain. This expertise is to be captured in the expert system.
  • The domain expert is the most important player in the expert system development team.

The knowledge engineer
  • The knowledge engineer is someone who is capable of designing building and testing an expert system.
  • He or she interviews the domain to find out how a particular problem is solved.
  • The knowledge engineer establishes what reasoning methods the expert uses to handle facts and rules and decides how to represent them in the expert system.
  • And finally, the knowledge engineer is responsible for testing revising and integrating the expert system into the workplace.
The Programmer
  • The programmer is the person responsible for the actual programming, describing the domain knowledge in terms that a computer can understand.
  • The programmer needs to have skills in symbolic programming in such AI languages as CLISP, Prolog and OPS5 and also some experience in the application of different types of expert system shells.
  • In addition, the programmer should know conventional programming languages like C, C++, C# and Basic.
The Project manager 
  • The project manager is the leader of the expert system development team, responsible for keeping the project on track.
  • He or she makes sure that all deliverables and milestones are met, interacts with the expert, knowledge engineer, programmer and end-user.
The end-user
  • The end-user, often called just the user, is a person who uses the expert system when it is developed.
  • The user must not only be confident in the expert system performance but also feel comfortable using it.
  • Therefore, the design of the user interface of the expert system is also vital for the project's success; the end-user's contribution here can be critical.


Production System Model



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