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Sensor Networks - II in IoT

Node Behavior in WSNs




  • Normal nodes work perfectly in ideal environment condition
  • Failed nodes are simply those that are unable to perform an operation; this could be because of power failure and environment events.
  • Badly failed nodes exhibit features of failed nodes but they can also send false routing messages which are a threat to the integrity of the network.
  • Selfish nodes are typified by their unwillingness to cooperate as the protocol requires whenever there is a personal cost involved. Packet dropping is the main attack by selfish nodes.
  • Malicious nodes aim to deliberately disrupt the correct operation of the routing protocol, denying network service if possible.
Dynamic Misbehavior : Dump Behavior
  • Detection of such temporary misbehavior in order to preserve normal functioning of the network - coinage and discovery of dump behavior
  • In the presence of adverse environment condition (high temperature, rainfall, and fog) the communication range shrinks
  • A sensor node can sense its surrounding but is unable to transmit the sensed data.
  • With the resumption of favorable environment conditions, dump nodes work normally
  • Dump behavior is temporal in nature (as it is dependent on the effects of environment conditions)
Detection and Connectivity Re-establishment
  • The presence of dump nodes impedes the overall network performance
  • Detection, and , subsequently, the re-establishment of network connectivity is crucial
  • The sensed information can only be utilized if the connectivity between each dumb node other nodes in the network could be re-established 
  • Before restoration of network connectivity , it is essential to detect the dumb nodes in the network.
  • CoRD and CoRAD are two popular schemes that re-establish the connectivity between dumb nodes with others.
Event-Aware Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Network
  • Timely detection of an event of interest
  • Monitoring the event 
  • Disseminating event-data to the sink
  • Adapting with the changes of event state
         - Event location
         - Event area
         - Event duration

Information Theoretic Self-Management of Wireless Sensor Networks
  • A WSN is deployed with the intention of acquiring information
  • The sensed information are transmitted in the form of packets
  • Information theoretic self - management (INTSEM) controls the transmission rate of a node by adjusting a node's sleep time 
  • Benefits
        - Reduce consumption of transmission energy of transmitters
        - Reduce consumption of receiving energy of relay nodes

General Framework of InTSeM



Social Sensing in WSNs

Social Sensing -based Duty Cycle Management for Monitoring rare Events in Wireless Sensor Networks
  • WSN are energy-constrained
  • Scenario:
         - Event monitoring using WSNs
         - WSN suffer from ineffective sensing for rare events
         - Event monitoring or sensing, even if there is no event to monitor or sense
        - EXAMPLE : SUBMARINE MONITORING IN UNDERWATER SURVEILLANCE
  • Possible Solution Approach : Duty-cycle management

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