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Introduction of Artificial Intelligence | What is Artificial Intelligence ? | What is Intelligence ? | Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Let's begin

Introduction of Artificial Intelligence
- AI is one of the newest disciplines
- Formally initiated in 1956
- The study of intelligence is also one of the oldest discipline

For over 2,000 years philosophers have tried to understand how
- Seeing
- Learning
- Remembering
- And reasoning could or should be done ?????

What is Intelligence ?

"Ability to learn , understand and think"
    (Oxford dictionary)

Intelligence is the ability to learn about, to learn from, to understand about, and interact with one's environment.

Intelligence is the faculty of understanding

Intelligence is not to make no mistakes but quickly to understand how to make them good.
   (German Poet)

Capacity to learn from experience

Ability to adapt to difference contexts

The use of analyses ability to enhance learning

Capacity of mind, especially to understand principles, truth, facts or meanings, acquire knowledge, and apply it to practice; the ability to learn and comprehend.

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

 An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence.

What is artificial intelligence ?
 There is no agreed definition of the term artificial intelligence. However,there are various definitions that have been proposed. Some will be considered below.

 The Scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying though and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines.

It is the Science and engineering of making intelligence machines, especially intelligence computer programs.

It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. (John McCarthy)

The use of computers to solve problems that previously could only be solved by applying human intelligence...... thus something can fit this definition today, but, once we see how the program works and understand the problems, we will not think of it as AI anymore (David Parnas).

What's involved in intelligence ?

  Ability to interact with the real world
   - to perceive, understand, and act
   - e.g. speech recognition and understanding and synthesis
   - e.g. image understanding
   - e.g. ability to take actions, have an effect
 Reasoning and Planning
   - modelling the external world, give input
   - solving new problems, planning and making decisions
   - ability to deal with unexpected problems, uncertainties
Learning and Adaptation
   - we are continuously learning and adapting
   - our internal models are always being "updated"
                  e.g. a baby learning to categorize and recognize animals

Academic Disciplines relevant to AI

HAL : from the movie 2001

2001: A Space Odyssey
  - classic science fiction movie from 1969
- part of the story centers around an intelligent computer called HAL
- HAL is the 'brains" of an intelligence spaceship
- in the movie, HAL can
      speak easily with the crew
      see and understand the emotions of the crew 
      navigate the ship automatically
      diagnose on-board problems
      make life-and-death decisions
      display emotions

In 1969 this was science fiction: is it still science fiction ?

 Consider what might be involved in building a computer like Hal......

 What are the components that might be useful ?
   - Fast hardware ?
   - Chess-playing at grand master level ?
   - Speech interaction ?
         speech synthesis
         speech recognition
         speech understanding
   - Image recognition and understanding ?
   - Learning ?
   - Planning and decision-making ?

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