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Wednesday, 17 October 2018

Deftemplate and Single-slot or multislot in AI

Deftemplate
  • Deftemplate is similar to a struct definition in C. That is, the deftemplate defines a group of related fields in a pattern similar to the way in which a C struct is a group of related data.
  • A deftemplate is a list of named fields called slots. Deftemplate allows access by name rather than by specifying the order of fields.
  • Deftemplate contributes to good style in expert systems programs and is a valuable tool of software engineering.

Single-slot
  • A slot is a named single-slot or multislot. A single-slot or simply slot contains exactly one field while a multislot contains zero or more fields.
  •  Any number of single or multislot may be used in a deftemplate. To write a slot, give the field name (attribute) followed by the field value.
  • Note that a multislot slot with one value is strictly not the same as a single-slot. As an analogy, think of a cupboard (the multislot) that may contain dishes.
  • A cupboard with one dish is not the same as a dish (single-slot.)
  • However, the value of a single-slot slot (or variable) may match a multislot slot (or multislot variable) that has one field. 
  • As an example of a deftemplate relation, consider the attributes of a business who might be considered good for prospect.
                     Attributes Value
                     name "Dopey Wonderful"
                     assets rich
                     age 99

(deftemplate prospect             ; name of deftemplate relation
"vital information"                 ; optional comment in quates
(slot name                               ; name of field
     (type STRING)                  ; default value of field name
     (default ?DERIVE) )         ; default value of field name
(slot assets                               ; name of field
     (type SYMBOL)                ; type of field
     (default rich))                     ; default value of field assets
(slot age                                   ; name of field
     (type NUMBER)               ; type. NUMBER can be INTEGER or FLOT
(default 80)))                           ; default value of field age


In this example, the components of deftemplate are structured as:
  • A deftemplate relation name
  • Attributes called fields
  • The field type, which can be any one of the allowed types: SYMBOL, STRING, NUMBER, and others.
  • The default for the field value
  • (assert (prospect))
  • As you see, CLIPS has inserted the default value of the null string, ''', for the name field since that is the default for a STRING. Likewise, the asserts and age defaults were also inserted by CLIPS. Different types have different default symbols such as the null string, " ", for STRING; the integer 0 for INTEGER; the float 0.0 for FLOT and so on.
  • The  ?DRIVE keyword select the appropriate type of constraints for that slot, e.g., the null string, " ", for a slot of type STRING.
           (defrule business-candidate
           (prospect (name ?name) (assets ?net_worth)
              (age ?months) )
      =>
      (printout t "Prospect: " ?name crlf
       ?net_worth crlf ?months " months old" crlf) ) 

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