Trending Technology Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligent, Block Chain, IoT, DevOps, Data Science

Recent Post

Search

Thursday, 16 May 2019

Connected Vehicles in IoT

Introduction

Vehicles equipped with
  • Sensors 
  • Networking and communication devices
Capable of :
  • Communicating with other devices within the vehicle
  • Communicating with other similar vehicles
  • Communicating with fixed infrastructure
 Challenges
  • Security
  • Privacy
  • Scalability
  • Reliability
  • Quality of service
  • Lack of global standards
Connected Vehicles




Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Paradigm
  • Main component of future Intelligent transportation system (ITS).
  • Enables vehicles to wirelessly share a diverse range of information.
  • Information sharing may be with other vehicles, pedestrians, or fixed infrastructure (mobile towers, parking meters, etc).
  • Allows for traffic management, ensuring on-road and off-road safety, mobility for traveling.
V2X
  • Follows a distributed architecture , where contents are widely distributed over the network.
  • Not restricted to single source information provider.
  • Designed mainly for highly to nodes in vicinity, as well as remotely located.
  • Has greatly enhanced travel efficiency, as well as safety.
  • The network is mainly used as a tool for sharing and disseminating information.
Failures of TCP/IP in V2X
  • Designed mainly for handling information exchange between a single pair of entities.
  • Information exchange dependent the location of data.
  • Can only identify the address of endpoints, which alone is not useful for content distribution.
  • Increase in number of wireless devices, restricts the mobility of the nodes.
 Content Centric Networking (CCN)
  • CCN is derived from information centric networking (ICN) architecture.
  • Focuses more on the data than its actual location.
  • Hierarchically named data.
  • Hierarchical data is transmitted directly instead of being part of a conversation.
  • Enables scalable and efficient data dissemination.
  • In-network caching allows for low data traffic.
  • Works well in highly mobile environments.
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANETs)

based on :
  • Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC)
  • Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE)
Routing protocols derived from MANETs.
Highly throughput achievable in mobile environments
Guaranteed low-latency in mobile environments.

VANET Features



Application of VANETs


CCN for VANETs

Routing
  • Forwarding and routing based on name of content (not location).
  • Individual content's name prefixes are advertised by routers  across the network.
  • This helps to build a forwarding information base (FIB) for each router.
  • The name of content remains same and unique globally.
  • No issues of IP address management or address exhaustion.
  • Communication does not depend on speed or direction of nodes.
Scalability
  • An in-network caching mechanism at each router.
  • Uniquely identifiable (named) data chunks are stored in Content store (CS), which acts as a cache.
  • Subsequent requests for a stored data chunk can be made to a CS.
  • The naming system in the Cs enables a data to be used multiple times, unlike normal IP-based routers.
  • Reduced network load during increased network size, as a result of the caching mechanism.
Body and Brain Architecture 
  • An in-vehicle networking architecture.
  • Three layered architecture
  • The body consists of intelligent networking nodes (INN) which constantly collect information from the vehicle.
  • The brain manages central coordination.

Sense and Execution Layer



Classification of INN



Network and Transmission Layer



No comments:

Post a Comment