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Peer-to-peer network, propagation and latency in Block Chain

Peer-To-Peer / Decentralized Network

A Peer-to-peer or decentralised network is group of independent computers called nodes which are interconnected with each other to share data among each other without the use of a centralised. In this example each node has the same capabilities (= they are equal to each other) hence the word "Peer".

Centralised Network

In a centralised network there is one central node where all nodes send their data to. 
The central node then send the data to the intended recipient.

 Bitcoin Peer - To - Peer Network

Bitcoin peer - to - peer network. Source :


When data is moved from one node to another it is called data propagation.

It takes time to propagate the same data to all nodes in the network.


Network latency is the term used to indicate any kind of delay that happens in data communication over a network. Latency is the time it takes for data to travel from its point of origin to the point of destination. Low latency means small delay times, while high latency means long delays.

There are many factors which contributes to latency. For example : delay caused by data propagation over distance or intercontinental communication via undersea cables. Delay caused by transmitting data through routers/switches.

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