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## Wednesday, 24 April 2019

Here,  Study of Representation of FOL and Reasoning of FOL.

Sentences

A predicate is a sentence

If sen, sen' are sentences & x a variable, then
(sen), ㄱsen, ∃x sen, ∀x sen,
sen ⋀ sen', sen ⋁ sen', sen ⇒ sen'
are sentences

Nothing else is a sentence

Examples of Sentences

Birthday (x, y) - x celebrates birthday on date y

∀y ∃x Birthday (x, y) -
For all dates, there exists a Person who celebrates his/her Birthday on that date.

Brother(x, y) - x is y's brother
Loves (x, y) - x loves y
∀x ∀y Brother (x, y) ⇒ Loves (x, y)
Everyone loves (all of ) his/her brothers.

Let m(x) represent mother of x then "everyone loves his/her mother" is
∀x Loves (x, m(x) )

Any number is the successor of its predecessor

succ (x), pred (x),
equal (x, y)
∀x equal (x, succ (pred (x) )

Alternative Representation

The Above example can be represented succinctly as
∀x (succ ( pred (x) = x)

FOL with Equality
• In FOL with equality, we are allowed to use the equality sign (=) between two functions.
• This is just for representational ease
• We modify the definition of sentence to include equality as
term = term is also a sentence

Quiz Revisited
• Some dogs bark
• ∃x (dog(x) ∧ bark(x) )
• All dogs have four legs
• ∀x (dog(x) ￫ have_four_legs (x)
• ∀x (dog(x) ￫ legs (x, 4)
• All barking dogs are irritating Do it yourself
• No dogs purr
ㄱ ∃x (dog(x) ∧ purr(x) )
•  Father are male parents with children
∀x (father(x) ⇾ male(x) ⋀ has_children(x) )
• Students are people who are enrolled in courses
Inference Rules

Universal Elimination
∀x Likes (x, flower)
substituting x by Shirin gives
Likes (Shirin, flower)
The substitution should be done by a constant term
Existential Elimination (Skolemization)
∃x Likes (x, flower) ⇒ Likes (Person, flower)
as long as person is not in the knowledge base
Existential Introduction
Likes (Shahid, flower)
Can be written as
∃x Likes (x, flower)

Reasoning in FOL

Consider the following problem :
If a perfect square is divisible by a prime p, then it is also divisible by square of p.
Every perfect square is divisible by some prime.
36 is a perfect square.

Does there exist a prime q such that square of q divides 36?
Representation in FOL

If a perfect square is divisible by a prime p, then it is also divisible by square of p.
∀x,y perfect_sq (x) ∧ prime (y) ∧ divides (x,y)
⇒ divides (x, square (y) )

Every perfect square is divisible by some prime.
∀x ∃y perfect_sq (x) ⋀ prime (y) ⋀ divides (x,y)

36 is a perfect square
perfect_sq (36)

Does there exist a prime q such that the square of q divides 36 ?
∃y prime (y) ⋀ divides (36, square (y) )

The Knowledge base

1. ∀x,y perfect_sq (x) ⋀ prime (y) ⋀ divides (x,y) ⇒ divides (x, square (y) )

2. ∀x ∃y perfect_sq (x) ⋀ prime (y) ⋀ divides (x,y)

3. perfect_sq (36)