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Wednesday, 3 April 2019

Sensor Networks - III in IoT



WSNs in Agriculture

AID : A Prototype for Agricultural Intrusion Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network


A set of sensor nodes are deployed over an agricultural field

Each of the board are enabled with two type of sensors :
    a) Passive Infrared (PIR)
    b) Ultrasonic

When an intruder enters into the field through the boundary (perimeter) of the field, the PIR sensor detects the object.

The ultrasonic sensor senses the distance at which the object is located.




Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs)


Incorporation of low cost camera (typically CMOS) to wireless sensor nodes

Camera sensor (CS) nodes
    - capture multimedia (video, audio, and the scalar) data, expensive and resource hungry , directional sensing range

Scalar sensor (SS) nodes
  - sense scalar data (temperature, light, vibration, and so on), omni-directional sensing range, and low cost

WMSNs consist of less number of CS nodes and large number of SS nodes

WMSNs Application
  • In security surveillance, wild-habitat monitoring, environmental monitoring, SS nodes cannot provide precise information
  • CS nodes replace SS nodes to get precise information
  • Deployment of both CS and SS nodes can provide better sensing and prolong network lifetime 
Topology Management in WMSNs
  • Video data are larger in size (e.g., 1024 bytes) which require larger bandwidth and consume high battery power
  • Coverage of the event should be provided as soon as the event occurs
  • Connectivity is another important metric that should be provided during video data transfer from the event area to the control center
  • Therefore, Ntirawen et al. proposed the distributed topology management of the WMSNs considering coverage, connectivity , and network lifetime
  • Coverage of the event is provided by using Coalition Formation Game between the CS and SS nodes
  Nanonetworks

Nanodevice has components of sizes in the order nano-meters.
Communication options among nanodevices
  • Electromagnetic
  • Molecular




Molecular Communication
  • Molecule used as information
  • Information packed into vesicles
  • Gap junction works as mediator between cells and vesicles
  • Information exchange between communication entities using molecules
  • Performed at NTT, Japan lab
Electromagnetic-based Communication
  • Surface Plasmonic Polarition (SPP) generated upon electromagnetic beam
  • EM communication for Nanonetworks centers around 0.1-10 Terahertz channel





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